Caller Module Paths

Sandworm-detected module names reflect the entire code path that led to invoking a method, from your app's level down to the actual module executing the method.

Let's say your app imports a module named test-libB, which depends on a method from a separate module, test-libA, which in turn ends up using axios to make an HTTP request. Internally, axios uses the follow-redirects module as a drop-in replacement for Node's http and https modules that automatically follows redirects. In this case, you should expect to see the following module name requesting to use the https.request permission:


Sandworm uses this path structure to create a proper security model. For example, let's say we want to grant permissions to the call described above:

  • Since it initiated the call chain, we could directly grant access to the test-libB module. But this would enable any of test-libB's dependencies to piggyback on this permission to execute malicious calls.

  • We could also directly grant access to follow-redirects, but then we are effectively enabling any module in our app to use it for making any requests, including potentially malicious ones.

  • The safest option is to grant explicit permissions to explicit module paths, like the one above:

    devMode: process.env.NODE_ENV === 'development',
    permissions: [{module: 'test-libB>test-libA>axios>follow-redirects', permissions: ['https.request', 'tls.connect', 'tls.createSecureContext', 'net.Socket', 'dns.lookup']}],

Matching caller paths with RegEx

In some scenarios, it is helpful to be able to grant permissions in bulk - like when executing inside a test runner. While this is not generally recommended and may lead to vulnerabilities outside of a controlled environment, the permission descriptor module property also accepts a RegExp to match multiple module names. Here's a real-world example taken from our automated tests using Jest:

    devMode: false,
    skipTracking: true,
    permissions: [
      // Jest runner needs vm.runInContext and bind.args, we explicitly allow them below
      {module: /jest/, permissions: ['vm', 'bind', '*']},
      {module: 'root', permissions: false},
      {module: 'source-map-support', permissions: ['fs']},

Trusted modules

Sometimes, you might want to exclude specific module names from the caller path, as they are part of the trusted platform you're using to run your app. For example, when running React, the react-dom module usually sits at the bottom of the module hierarchy and is responsible for triggering most method calls. To specify trusted modules, use the trustedModules configuration option.

Note When specifying a trusted module, you effectively permit it to impersonate root. Use this configuration carefully.

Third party scripts

Sandworm interprets scripts loaded via the <script> tag as individual modules. This is why, for example, you might see invoking Beacon.sendBeacon whenever your app sends analytics data. To modify this behavior:

  • add the script to the trustedModules config array, or

  • if the script is part of the app and built with a bundler, provide the path to a source map via the loadSourceMaps config option.

Browser extensions

Sandworm can also catch activity coming from local, user-installed browser extensions. To enable this, set the ignoreExtensions config option to false. By default (ignoreExtensions: true), any invoke that has a browser extension anywhere in the call path will be passed through.


Root code can be segmented into multiple "virtual" modules based on the file path by defining aliases. This can be useful, for example, when running tests, to separate core code from testing infrastructure code:

// Say we want to run unit tests for
  devMode: true,
  trustedModules: ['mocha'],
  // This will make the express core source code register as `express` instead of `root`
  // Unit test code will still be labeled `root`
  aliases: [{path: 'express/lib', name: 'express'}],

To configure aliases, set the aliases config option to an array of objects having:

  • a string path attribute, representing a path component shared between all source code files that should be matched by the alias;

  • a string name attribute, representing the alias name to apply.

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